Ice Nucleation Efficiency of the Laboratory Synthesized Lead Oxide as The Proxy of Lead Containing Aerosols
Abstract: Atmospheric aerosols, in particular lead oxide (PbO), act as ice nucleating particles (INPs), and influence rainfall. Ultimately, atmospheric ice nucleation derived from PbO may contribute to affecting the distribution of water across multiple ecosystems as well as weather patterns. It is known that aerosols affect the environment but not much is known on how much is from PbO. Here, lead-containing aerosols is of particular interest because it is emitted in large quantities worldwide with an estimated 13,156 tons in Europe in 2010 (Table 1; Pacyna et al., 2007) and about 1,207 tons being emitted in the U.S. during 2008 (Cho et al., 2011). We investigated PbO as a potential INP and how it affects the onset of immersion freezing (i.e., ice nucleation of immersed PbO particles in water droplets) in simulated supercooled clouds. We used the Dynamic Filter Processing Chamber (DFPC) at the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC-CNR) in Bologna Italy to test the potential INP of PbO as another procedure for comparison. We developed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to monitor bulk freezing and to study the molecular interactions between PbO and water at phase transitions.
Cory Davis*, Axel Dreyer, Franco Belosi, Matteo Rinaldi Naruki Hiranuma, and Cathy Clewett
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