Emissions Analysis of diesels Derived from Biomass used for Hybrid Heavy Duty Trucks
Abstract: In the US, heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for 70% of all freight fleet and most HDVs are run with diesel which is a significant source of air pollution. For over two decades different avenues have been explored to find and implement ways to improve fuel efficiency and reduce vehicle emissions. One of these attempts is to develop new fuels. While hybrid passenger vehicles are easily accessible, hybrid HDVs are just emerging on the world market. Currently, most diesel vehicles run on low sulfur diesel (LSD), and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD). However, there are new types of diesel that have been developed and tested, such as biodiesel (BD), ethanol-diesel (ED), and renewable diesel (RD) produced from soybeans, corn stover, forest residue and algae. To study the environmental impacts of BD, ED, and RD compared with LSD used in hybrid HDVs, a life cycle analysis tool called the GREET model is used to evaluate the life cycle emissions of these various diesels in hybrid trucks in 2018 and 2030. This evaluation includes the analyses in two stages of well-to- pump (WTP) and well-to- wheels (WTW) for hybrid heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs). The emissions of ULSD used in the truck is used as the baseline for the comparison to the other diesels. The sensitivity analyses are conducted based on the variations of energy supplies including conventional energy and renewable energies, the availability of biomass, and the production efficiency of biodiesel, and renewable diesel. The overall GHGs emissions are significantly reduced when using RD derived from algae, corn stover and forest residue. Some emissions like NOx, PM10, and PM2.5 increase when using RD derived from soybean, corn stover, forest residue, and algae reduction. The fuel RD derived from algae needs a great technology breakthrough for future use in HDVs on a large scale.
Esther Armah*, Hongbo Du, and Raghava Kommalapati
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